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It is very likely that further investigations will push back the Sri Lankan lower boundary to match that of South India.

Archaeological evidence for the beginnings of the Iron Age in Sri Lanka is found at Anuradhapura, where a large city–settlement was founded before 900 BCE.

Several minute granite tools (about 4 centimetres in length), earthenware, remnants of charred timber, and clay burial pots date to the Mesolithic.

Several of these caves, including the well-known Batadombalena and the Fa Hien Cave, have yielded many artifacts from these people, who are currently the first known inhabitants of the island.

From the 16th century, some coastal areas of the country were also controlled by the Portuguese, Dutch and British.

Between 15, a substantial part of the island was under Portuguese rule.

Buddhism was introduced in the 3rd century BCE by Arhath Mahinda (son of the Indian emperor Ashoka).

The first Tamil ruler of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, Ellalan (Elara), an invader, is recorded for the 2nd century BCE.

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