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The primary aerosol sources include emissions from combustion, road or wind-blown dust, and plants, while the secondary formation processes include nucleation and growth by multiphase chemical processes.

Also, primary and secondary particles undergo chemical and physical transformations and are subjected to cloud processing and transport in the atmosphere (8, 9).

While the particle chemical compositions in Beijing are similar to those commonly measured worldwide, efficient nucleation and growth over an extended period in Beijing are distinctive from the aerosol formation typically observed in other global areas.

Gaseous emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides from urban transportation and sulfur dioxide from regional industry are responsible for large secondary PM formation, while primary emissions and regional transport of PM are insignificant.

ಸಚಿವ ಯು.ಟಿ ಖಾದರ್ ಅವರೊಂದಿಗೆ ದ್ವಿಚಕ್ರ ವಾಹನದಲ್ಲಿ ಕುಳಿತು ಪ್ರಚಾರ ಕಾರ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ತೊಡಗಿದರು.

The average mass concentrations of 35 μg⋅m events from 25–29 September and 2–7 October.

We illustrate the similarity and difference in particulate matter (PM) formation between Beijing and other world regions.

The periodic cycle of PM events in Beijing is regulated by meteorological conditions.

levels in Beijing on the basis of measurements of ambient gases and aerosol properties. S1) may be affected by transport, local emissions, and chemistry, the evolutions of the particle size, mass, number concentration, chemical composition, and meteorological parameters (such as measured wind direction and speed and back-trajectories) were analyzed to decouple the various processes.

The measured PM) demonstrate the presence of a higher number concentration of smaller particles during the clean period but a slightly lower particle number concentration of larger particles during the polluted period. 1During our observation period, southerly winds were most prevalent (50%), followed by winds from the northwest (42%) and northeast (7%) (Fig. The wind was much weaker from the south but stronger from the northwest and northeast.

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